Thursday, October 9, 2008

Occupied Beijing

Occupied Beijing is when Li Zicheng led people army and raised two ways total offensive toward capital Beijing, last imperial highest rank of Eunuch Du Zujuopen order open Beijing city wall‘s door whom said: finished Ming Dynasty's 276 years governed.

The last battle that ended Ming Dynasty full too much undertable political tricks and enigmas haven‘t answer till today and wait historians research.

Juyongguan:The last battle


Mutianyu is a section of the located in Huairou County 70 northeast of Beijing. The Mutianyu section of the Great Wall is connected with in the west and Gubeikou Gateway in the east. As one of the best-preserved parts of the Great Wall, Mutianyu section of Great Wall used to serve as the northern barrier defending the capital and the imperial tombs.

First built in the mid-6th century during the Northern Qi, Mutianyu Great Wall is older than the Badaling section of the Great Wall. In the Ming dynasty, under the supervision of General Xu Da, construction of the present wall began on the foundation of the wall of Northern Qi. In 1404, a pass was built in the wall. In 1569, the Mutianyu Great Wall was rebuilt and till today most parts of it are well preserved. The Mutianyu Great Wall has the largest construction scale and best quality among all sections of Great Wall.

Built mainly with granite, the wall is 7-8 meters high and the top is 4-5 meters wide. Compared with other sections of Great Wall, Mutianyu Great Wall possesses unique characteristics in its construction.

* Watchtowers are densely placed along this section of the Great Wall - 22 watchtowers on this 2,250-meter-long stretch.

* Both the outer and inner parapets are crenelated with merlons, so that shots could be fired at the enemy on both sides - a feature very rare on other parts of the Great Wall.

* The Mutianyu Pass consists of 3 watchtowers, one big in the center and two smaller on both sides. Standing on the same terrace, the three watchtowers are connected to each other inside and compose a rarely seen structure among all sections of Great Wall.

Besides, this section of Great Wall is surrounded by woodland and streams. The forest-coverage rate is over 90 percent.

Today, this section of wall is open to visitors. A cable car is available to help visitors. Another feature of the wall at Mutianyu is the wheeled toboggan ride down from the wall on a winding metal track.

Adjacent to the Mutianyu wall is its namesake village, which has been hailed by the Chinese government as a model village because of its rebirth largely thanks to tourism and glassware industries. Mutianyu Village is twinned with the village of Shelburne Falls in the of Massachusetts.

On August 7th 2007, members of the pro-Tibetan organization, Students for a Free Tibet, targeted the Mutianyu section of the Great Wall between towers 4 and 6, to demonstrate against the Chinese occupation of Tibet and mark the one-year countdown to the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. They hung a 450 sq. ft. banner which read, "One World, One Dream, Free Tibet 2008" in both and .

Tips for Mutianyu

Opening Hours: 07:30 to 17:20

Recommended Time for a Visit: Two and a half hours

How to get there: Take Bus no 916 from Dongzhimen or take tourist Bus No. 6 at Xuanwumen.


Juyongguan or Juyong Pass is located in an 18 kilometer-long valley named "Guangou" which is inside Changping County more than 50 kilometers from Beijing City. It is one of the three greatest passes of the Great Wall of China. The other two passes are and Shanhaiguan.

It had many different names in the past . However, the name "Juyongguan" was used by more than three dynasties. It was first used in the Qin Dynasty when Emperor Qinshihuang ordered to build the Great Wall. Juyongguan Pass has two passes, one at the south and one at the north. The south one is called "Nan Pass" and the north one is called "Badaling".

This pass was connected to the Great Wall in the Northern and Southern Dynasties.

In the middle of Juyongguan, there is a "Cloud Platform" with another name of "Crossing Street Tower". It was made of white marble in the Yuan Dynasty with a height of 9.5 meters. Around the top of the platform there are many structures such as stone railings and a watching post. They are still kept in the style of the Yuan Dynasty. In the middle of the base of the platform there is an arched door where men, horses and carriages could pass through. Many animal images were carved in the arched hole and the arched door. On the walls of both sides of the door, the statues of gods and scriptures are carved. There were three white towers on the platform in the past and were destroyed in the transitional period between the Yuan Dynasty and the Ming Dynasty. Later a Tai'an Temple was built on the platform but was later destroyed in the Qing Dynasty.

The present Pass was built in the Ming Dynasty and received much renovation later. It is a very important strategic place connecting the inner land and the area near the northern border of China. It is also a defensive place for the ancient Beijing City.

Once there were lush flowers and trees around the Pass like layers of green waves, so it got the good name of "Juyong Green Layers", which belongs to one of "Yanjing Eight Best Sceneries". The Chinese government is trying to restore the vegetation and although some progress has been made, the vegetation has not recovered to its past level.



Jumenbu , is a fortress of the Ming Great Wall Shanxi Section, located in Datong city in Shanxi province, China.

Jumenbu is a fortress for guarding the Great Wall of China, and it is a part of the Great Wall defence system. Jumenbu is situated in a brae 2.5 km away from the Great Wall. It is designed to defend against invasion and harry the nomads of Mongolia. The original name is Jumengbu, which means a fortress used to resist the Mongols, and was renamed afterwards.

The fortress is not big, and has only a gate on the east with ''wengcheng'' on the east. The wall is built from earth with bricks on the surface.


Jinshanling , a section of the Great Wall of China located in the mountainous area in Luanping county 120 km northeast of Beijing. This section of the wall is connected with the Simatai section. It was built from 1570 during the Ming Dynasty.

The Jinshanling section of the Great Wall is 10.5 km long with 5 passes, 67 towers and 2 beacon towers. The initial section of the wall has been restored to original condition, but the condition of the wall deteriorates towards its natural state as it approaches Simatai. The entrance fee is 40 RMB. A cable car has been constructed to take visitors to the highest point along the wall. There is an additional admission charge of 50 RMB to continue on to the Simatai section, and a 5 RMB fee to cross the suspension bridge.

Jiayuguan (pass)

Jiayuguan or Jiayu Pass is the first pass at the west end of the Great Wall of China, near the city of in Gansu province. It has also been called "Jiayuguan Pass"; however, this form is since "guan" means "pass" in Chinese. Along with Juyongguan and Shanhaiguan, it is one of the main passes of the Great Wall.


The pass is located at the narrowest point of the western section of the Hexi Corridor, 6 kilometers southwest of the city of in Gansu. The structure lies between two hills, one of which is called Jiayuguan Hill. It was built near an oasis that was then on the extreme western edge of China.


The pass is trapezoid-shaped with a perimeter of 733 meters and an area of more than 33,500 square meters. The total length of the city wall is 733 meters and the height is 11 meters.

There are two gates: one on the east side of the pass, and the other on the west side. On each gate there is a building. An inscription of "Jiayuguan" in Chinese is written on a tablet at the building at the west gate. The south and north sides of the pass are connected to the Great Wall. There is a turret on each corner of the pass. On the north side, inside the two gates, there are wide roads leading to the top of the pass.

Jiayuguan consists of three defense lines: an inner city, an outer city and a moat.

Legend and History

A fabulous legend recounts the meticulous planning involved in the construction of the pass. According to legend, when Jiayuguan was being planned, the official in charge asked the designer to estimate the exact number of bricks required and the designer gave him a number. The official questioned his judgment, asking him if that would be enough, so the designer added one brick. When Jiayuguan was finished, there was one brick left over, which was placed loose on one of the gates where it remains today.

The structure was initially built during the early Ming dynasty, sometime around the year 1372. The fortress there was greatly strengthened due to fear of an invasion by Timur, but Timur died of old age while leading an army toward China.


Among the passes on the Great Wall, Jiayuguan is the most intact surviving ancient military building. The pass is also known by the name the "First and Greatest Pass Under Heaven" ,which is not to be confused with the "First Pass under Heaven" , a name for Shanhaiguan at the east end of the Great Wall near Qinhuangdao, Hebei.

The pass was a key waypoint of the ancient Silk Road.

Jiayuguan has a somewhat fearsome reputation because Chinese people who were banished were ordered to leave through Jiayuguan for the west, never to return.

Around Jiayuguan there are many historic sites such as the Mogao Caves. Many frescos were found in the areas around Jiayuguan.


Jiankou is a section of the located in the Huairou District 73km north of Beijing. The Jiankou section of the is located between the Mutianyu--ten kilometers to the east--and the Huanghuacheng sections of the . This section of the has fallen into disrepair and this, along with its location along a mountain ridge bordered by jagged cliffs and steep drop-offs, makes the Jiankou segment of the potentially dangerous to climb.

The Jiankou section of the wall was constructed in 1368 during the period of the Ming Dynasty. It is made of large white rocks which can be seen from a great distance.

There are many scenic sites along the Jiankou , one of which is the enemy observation tower known as "The Eagle Flies Facing Upward". This observation tower was built on a mountain which forms the highest section of the Jiankou . The "Sky Stairs" are another famous scenic spot. At this location of the the stairs go practically straight up, and they are so narrow that it is barely possible to obtain a foothold. Other scenic areas include: the Beijing Knot, where three different sections of the converge; the Nine-Eye Tower, so named because of the nine observation holes in it; the Zhengbei Tower , the Cloud Stairs, and many other enemy observation towers.